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Academic Papers

JoEllen Sefton et al. November 2016 – Evaluation of 2 Heat-Mitigation Methods in Army Trainees

A ground-breaking piece of research into heatstroke showing not only that misting and fanning is ineffective as a treatment but that it can even be dangerous; providing a sense of coolness whilst core temperature remains critically elevated.

Christian Wallmüller et al. September 2015 – Limited effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia on outcome after prolonged resuscitation

A striking paper highlighting the futility of cooling too late after arrest.

Journal article by Bill Roberts, M.D. of the Twin Cities Marathon; “Determining a ‘Do Not Start’ Temperature for a Marathon on the Basis of Adverse Outcomes”

A research article advising marathon organisers to cancel events where wet bulb temperatures rise above 21 degrees, the point at which the risk of heatstroke becomes very high.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Adults after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

This Cochrane review assesses the influence of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest on neurological outcome, survival and averse events.

European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Guidelines for Post-resuscitation Care 2015

The ERC 2015 medicine guidelines for post-resuscitation care.

Wang et al. July 2015 – Therapeutic Hypothermia in Spinal Cord Injury – The Status of Its Use and Open Questions

An interesting analysis of the use of therapeutic hypothermia in the treatment of SCI.

Flynn et al. May 2015 – Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Intracranial Pressure and Partial Brain Oxygen Tension in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury:- Preliminary Data from the Eurotherm3235 Trial

A retrospective analysis indicating that therapeutic hypothermia is an effective addition to the management of intracranial hypertension in TBI.

Uray et al. October 2014 – Prehospital surface cooling is safe and can reduce the time to target temperature after cardiac arrest

A comparison of prehospital and in hospital cooling using surface cooling (Emcools).

Polderman/Varon April 2014 – We should not abandon therapeutic cooling after cardiac arrest

A considered response to the results of the Nielsen study.

Callaway et al. December 2013 – Early coronary angiography and induced hypothermia are associated with survival and  functional recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

A secondary analysis of a multicenter clinical trial conducted between 2007 and 2009 in 10 North American regions regarding adults hospitalised after OHCA with pulses sustained for more than 60 minutes.  The association of early coronary catheterisation, percutaneous coronary intervention, fibrinolysis, and induced hypothermia with survival to hospital discharge with favourable functional status were measured.

Casa et al. 2013 – The Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs – Best Practice Recommendations

Provides a roadmap for policy considerations regarding health and safety concerns for secondary school athletes.

Wallin et al. December 2013 – Cardiac arrest and hypothermia treatment-function and life satisfaction among survivors in the first 6 months

A statistical analysis of the life satisfaction of survivors of cardiac arrest.

Nielsen et al. November 2013 – Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C versus 36°C after Cardiac Arrest

The long awaited results of one of the largest studies yet undertaken comparing two target temperatures, both intended to prevent fever, and finding little difference between them.

Kim et al. November 2013 – Effect of Prehospital Induction of Mild Hypothermia on Survival and Neurological Status Among Adults With Cardiac Arrest

Report of a study to determine whether pre-hospital cooling improves outcomes after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and without VF.

Casa et al. 2012 – Exertional Heatstroke: New Concepts Regarding Cause and Care

When athletes, warfighters, and laborers perform intense exercise in the heat, the risk of exertional heat stroke (EHS) is ever present.  During the past 35 years, the highest number of deaths in a 5-year period occurred from 2005 to 2009.  This article addresses important issues related to EHS cause and care.

Broessner et al. June 2012 – Update on therapeutic temperature management

Extended abstracts from the speakers at the 2nd Innsbruck Hypothermia Symposium as published in a supplementary edition of Critical Care providing interesting reading across many of its applications.

Arulkumaran et al. October 2011 – Use of ice-cold crystalloid for inducing mild therapeutic hypothermia following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

A literature review to determine what are the barriers to the initiation of mild therapeutic hypothermia in the ED and on the use of ice-cold crystalloids as a practical, simple, effective, and safe method of its induction.

Lundbye et al. August 2011 – Therapeutic hypothermia is associated with improved neurologic outcome and survival in cardiac arrest survivors of non-shockable rhythms

Therapeutic hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation.  However, its role in patients with cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythms (pulseless electrical activity (PEA) and asystole) is unclear.  The authors hypothesised that therapeutic hypothermia favourably impacts neurologic outcome and survival in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythms.

McNally et al. July 2011 – Data collection from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) 2005-2010

This was the first report to provide summary data from an OHCA surveillance registry in the United States.  It summarises surveillance data collected from October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010.

Mooney et al. May 2011 –  Therapeutic Hypothermia After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Evaluation of a Regional System to Increase Access to Cooling

This informative and supportive report addresses the authors’ experience with a system of care designed to provide therapeutic hypothermia to survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Varon et al. March 2011 – required reading for all who are new to the concept of Therapeutic Hypothermia.

In a variety of clinical conditions, therapeutic hypothermia is still being studied (e.g, hepatic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury).  This study describes its historical development, its current applications in emergency medicine, and its potential future uses.

Taccone et al. February 2011 – When, where and how to initiate hypothermia after adult cardiac arrest

An analysis of studies regarding early initiation of therapeutic hypothermia and how it might be achieved.

Bernard et al. October 2010 – Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia by Paramedics After Resuscitation From Out-of-Hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for the treatment of neurological injury after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.  Laboratory studies suggested that earlier cooling may be associated with improved neurological outcomes.  The authors hypothesised that induction of therapeutic hypothermia by paramedics before hospital arrival would improve outcome.

William J Ohley March 2010 – Evidence for Benefits of Rapid Induction of Hypothermia

An interesting study concluding that therapeutic hypothermia offers potential benefit for the treatment of cerebral  ischemic conditions including cardiac arrest and stroke, as well as acute myocardial  infarction and traumatic brain injury and citing much evidence to support the assertion that the earlier and more quickly cooling is provided, the more effective it will be in improving outcomes.

Bernard et al. February 2002 – Treatment of Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Induced Hypothermia

One of the groundbreaking studies into therapeutic hypothermia.  Studies in laboratory animals suggest that hypothermia induced shortly after the restoration of spontaneous circulation may improve neurologic outcome, but there have been no conclusive studies in humans.  In a randomised, controlled trial, we compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in patients who remained unconscious after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Becker et al. April 1998 – Public Locations of Cardiac Arrest and the implications for Public Access Defibrillation

A retrospective cohort study to describe the public locations of cardiac arrest and to estimate the annual incidence of cardiac arrest per site to determine optimal placement of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs).


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